Most of the territory of the district is occupied by the West Siberian Plain. In the south-east is the Altai mountain system – the highest part of Western Siberia (Mount Belukha – 4506 meters). Most of Western Siberia is located within the continental climate of the temperate zone, and its northern part is located within the subarctic and Arctic zones, so its climate in nature is continental. Western Siberia covers five natural zones: tundra, forest tundra, taiga, forest-steppe and steppe. Most of Western Siberia is swampy, with the largest area of swamps in the world.
The rivers of Western Siberia belong to the Kara Sea basin. The largest waterway - the Ob with the Irtysh tributary - is one of the greatest rivers of the globe. The Ob River is formed at the confluence of Biya and Katun, originating in Altai, and flows into the Ob Bay of the Kara Sea. Among the rivers of Russia, it ranks first in terms of basin area and third in terms of water content. In the forest zone, up to the mouth of the Irtysh, the Ob receives its main tributaries: on the right - the Tom, Chulym, Ket, Tym, Vakh rivers; on the left - the Parabel, Vasyugan, Bolshoy Yugan and Irtysh rivers. The largest rivers in the north of Western Siberia - Nadym, Pur and Taz - originate on the Siberian Uvalas.
The flora of Western Siberia is about 1.5 times poorer in comparison with adjacent regions, the gap is especially large for the taiga and tundra zones. The fauna of Western Siberia is characterized by a higher relative diversity. Thus, there are 80 species in the four main orders of mammals of Western Siberia, 94 and 90 for Eastern Siberia and European Russia, respectively. There are 13 species in common with Eastern Siberia, 16 with European Russia, 51 common to all three regions; there are none found only in Western Siberia. The greatest diversity is distinguished by the fauna of birds, the main part of which species in Western Siberia are migratory. In terms of the total number of bird species, Western Siberia is not significantly inferior to adjacent regions in any zonal area, and surpasses them in terms of waterfowl and near-water.