In the Russian Empire at the beginning of the twentieth century, quite a lot of cultural, educational, patriotic societies arose, including military sports organizations engaged in patriotic education of young people. One of the most famous of them was the sports and gymnastics society "Sokol", which emerged as a pan-Slavic youth organization. In the Russian Empire, "semi-Polish" sports societies appeared in the Western Region at the end of the XIX century among the Polish population.
On January 8, 1908, Emperor Nicholas II expressed his "highest wish": "To start training children in schools in the villages in formation and gymnastics by reserve and retired non-commissioned officers for a small fee." In the spring of 1909, the inspector of the public schools of the Bakhmut district of the Yekaterinoslav province, A. A. Lutskevich, organized a "class of military system and gymnastics" from children aged 8 to 14 at the Bakhmut National School. Nicholas II drew attention to this initiative and already on May 5, 1909, he assigned its name as "The First People's Class of the military system and Gymnastics of His Imperial Majesty the Heir of the Tsarevich and Grand Duke Alexei Nikolaevich". In May 1910, it participated in demonstration parades in Tsarskoye Selo, St. Petersburg and Moscow.
In Soviet Russia, according to the decree of the Central Executive Committee of April 22, 1918 "On compulsory military art training", pre-conscription training was introduced, training centers were opened for students aged 15-17. In 1967, with the adoption of a new edition of the "Law of the USSR on Universal Military Duty", pre-conscription training was returned to students under the name "initial military training" (IMT). IMT in secondary schools as a subject was introduced from the 9th grade. Boys and girls of pre-conscription and military age were subject to training. Also, the activities of the DOSAAF network belonged to the sphere of NVP. In addition, the paramilitary game "Zarnitsa" was widespread, since the 1970s, military-patriotic clubs have been working with teenagers.
During the period of Perestroika, by order of the Ministry of Education of the RSFSR No. 62 of October 17, 1990, initial military training in schools of the RSFSR was actually canceled, it was determined that henceforth, until the repeal of Article 17 of the USSR Law on Universal Military Duty, pre-conscription training should be carried out at field training camps in defense sports camps.