By the Decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR dated October 16, 1967 "On the transformation of the Nefteyugansk work settlement of the Surgut district of the Khanty-Mansiysk National Okrug, Tyumen Region into a city of district subordination", the Nefteyugansk work settlement was transformed into a city of district significance.
The city is located on an island near the Ob river. After accepting the status in January 1968, Nefteyugansk met a special guest – a member of the Politburo of the Central Committee of the CPSU, Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the USSR Alexei Nikolaevich Kosygin.
In the late 1960s, the first stone houses were built here. The construction of a giant oil pipeline was started: Samotlor – Ust-Balyk – Tyumen – Ufa – Almetyevsk. In 1980, the Nefteyugansk district was formed with the center in the city of Nefteyugansk. As an administrative-territorial unit of the Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug – Yugra has the status of a city of district significance. Within the framework of local self-government, the city of Nefteyugansk forms a municipal formation with the status of an urban district as the only settlement in its composition.