The emergence and development of polar agriculture as a science of growing food crops in extreme climatic conditions was associated with intensive transport and industrial development of territories above the 61st parallel in the past century.
The organizer and head of the first research institution in the North – the Pechersk Natural History Station at the Imperial Academy of Sciences – Andrey Vladimirovich Zhuravsky successfully grew corn, zucchini, tomatoes, beans and tobacco in the experiments of 1909-1911, explaining the negative results with more thermophilic crops with a "minimum of technical conditions". The experiments of the pioneer of the North-Pechersk horticulture Artem Stepanovich Solovyov confirmed the need to grow cabbage by the seedling method, i.e. using special technical means.
Zhuravsky, who essentially became the founder of polar agriculture and believed in its future, turned out to be misunderstood and destroyed in those years. Shortly before his tragic death, he wrote: "... with our Russian perfect lack of faith, faith is recognized either invariably as speculation or as a sign of psychosis – two phenomena are not powerful (which is absolutely true) count on public support until the thunder breaks. Will our North be urgently needed by the state economy in 10-15 years? The answer to this question is recognized as subjective, whereas, if one can say "Yes!", then it is impossible to postpone the comprehensive organization of the case" (1912).
In 1932, the Main Directorate of the Northern Sea Route was formed, to which all economic work was transferred north of 62 grad, S.sh., and in 1.934, a resolution of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) and the USSR Council of People's Commissars on the tasks of the Glavsevmorput was issued, which indicated the need to "... develop local food resources by creating sub-farms, suburban farms, farms, etc. in order to liberate the North from the plant in record time." Local vegetable production, in particular greenhouse production, was given great importance. As emphasized by O.Y. Schmidt (1938) "... vegetables in the North have not only purely nutritional, but also enormous psychological significance ...". On the initiative of O.Y. Schmidt, Glavsevmorput, carrying out the campaign "Hike to vegetables" in 1935-1936, organizes greenhouse farms on Dixon, Svalbard, in Tiksa, and in 1936-1938 on Vaigach, in the Bay of Holding and in Naryan-Mare.
Even before the Great Patriotic War, varieties of vegetables were bred that could be bred in the North, but greenhouse farming was developed in the post-war period.